Listeria monocytogenes, along with Salmonella, is responsible for more deaths in Australia than any other foodborne disease, each accounting for about 15 deaths per year. So, how do we avoid contracting it from rockmelons?

slices cantaloupe

Avoiding soft cheeses, deli meats and dressings like mayonnaise is well known to pregnant women to avoid contracting the bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes. But rockmelons are less well known for causing listeriosis outbreaks.

One of the largest outbreaks due to Listeria monocytogenes on rockmelons was in the US in 2011, where 33 people died. In Australia between January and April 2018, there were 22 human cases of listeriosis associated with consumption of rockmelons linked to a single NSW farm. The cases of listeriosis occurred across New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania and led to seven deaths and a miscarriage. The NSW Food Authority report on the investigation into the outbreak concluded that adverse weather events were the major contributors to the outbreak, with heavy rains in December and subsequent dust storms significantly increasing the organic load and amount of Listeria on the fruit. Some other factors were also noted as potentially contributing to a lesser extent.

The incidence of listeriosis (the bacterial infection caused by eating food contaminated by Listeria) is comparable in Australia to other western countries – we have around 60-70 cases per year. We had an outbreak linked to cheese in late 2012-early 2013 and that was our last large-scale Listeria incident. Listeria, along with Salmonella, is responsible for more deaths in Australia than any other foodborne disease, each accounting for about 15 deaths per year.

Listeria is generally only contracted by a fairly small, vulnerable group of people – the elderly, unwell and pregnant women – but it is fatal for about 1 in 5 of those who contract it. Compared to other pathogens (microorganisms that make humans sick or is fatal) like Salmonella or E coli, Listeria has a high mortality rate among the risk groups. The three people who have unfortunately passed away this week from infected rockmelons were over 65.

Listeria is abundant in the environment and therefore it’s difficult for food producers and processors to control it. It’s commonly found in the soil which, of course, is where horticultural crops like rockmelons happen to grow. Additionally, the ‘netted’ nature of the rockmelon skin makes it particularly hard to clean and sanitise. Listeria can go from the soil to the melon skin and although it doesn’t grow on the skin, when we slice the melon to eat it that can introduce it into the flesh. Then, we mightn’t eat it all at once but a few days later cut it up some more and put it out to eat at a picnic, and the bacteria has grown even more. Or if you leave it out of the fridge, it can grow faster. Listeria grows at four degrees but keeping it in the fridge will help slow the growth.

Because rockmelon is less acidic than say tomatoes, there’s more chance of microbes surviving.

So, should we wash rockmelons at home before eating them? It shouldn’t be necessary because they’ve already undergone a cleaning process. Australia’s food safety procedures are among the best in the world but there’s no harm in giving them a scrub, especially if obvious dirt can be seen on the fruit.

Rest assured, the rockmelon industry has taken significant steps to even further strengthen their food safety procedures since the incident including one-on-one food safety consultations with all Australian rockmelon growers and packing sheds and developing a best practice toolbox.

What can we do at home to reduce our risk of food-borne illness? Key food safety tips include washing your hands, storing food that is meant to be chilled (like salad bags) at 5 degrees or colder, cooking food properly and keeping raw and cooked foods separate during storage and preparation. An additional outcome of the 2018 outbreak is that health authorities are now recommending that vulnerable persons do not consume rockmelons, along with other higher risk foods, to minimise their risk of exposure to Listeria (see more in the NSW Health Listeriosis fact sheet).

This article was first published 2 March 2018 and updated 5 December 2018.


  1. what about homegrown rock melons. Are they are risk of being infected?

    1. Hi Jan,

      Contamination of home grown fruit and vegetables will depend on the environment they’re grown in, such as the use of fertilisers and manure. Follow this link for some useful advice from the Food Safety Information Council on growing your own fruit and vegetables:

      In the blog, we talked about commercially available fruit, which is washed before it’s sold so it doesn’t need washing again at home. Of course, if it’s visibly dirty or you feel it may have potentially been contaminated during shopping or getting it home, then of course wash it.

      With any home grown fruit and vegetables, we advise washing them before consumption to remove any potential microbial contaminants.

      Thanks very much,
      Social Team

  2. I’ve growing rockmelon from a seed. It would not carry listeria from new grown rockmelons? CQ

    1. Hi Nathan,

      We’re not aware that this would be the case.

      Thanks very much,
      Content Team

  3. I am an Occam’s Razor fan so I checked the weather for Griffith a week to ten days before the rockmelons were eaten and it had rained. clearly the dates of picking can be checked with the weather bureau. of course it could be contaminated irrigation water but surely warning farmers not to harvest in the rain and wait for 24 hours after, is easier to enforce and check on

  4. why does fsanz publish information about listeria being dangerous for children under 5 , pregnant women, immuno compromised , when you publish your ‘advice’ stating that people can just eat listeria bacteria and ‘not notice’. you also publish ‘advice’ about how healthy all of the australian fresh produce is ! where is your proof when you stated : Australia’s food safety procedures are among the best in the world and in this case, the NSW Food Authority has advised that fruit currently available on supermarkets shelves are not implicated in this outbreak. I have been trying to get the fresh produce safety procedures updated because it was outdated and missed critical safety steps. please provide the food safety training for growers AND workers picking and packing fruit and vegetables, please provide proof that Australia has implemented food safety standards that meet FDA standards

  5. I always wash fruit very well before cutting it. It is absurd for the CSIRO to say that washing it is not necessary.
    I do not buy any melons that are sold pre-cut for this reason, that I know many people, including at restaurants don’t wash even salads properly. Good Hygiene would go a long away to preventing ill health.

    Were the melons washed properly? Were they pre- cut?

    Is the overuse of herbicides such as Glyphosate, Diquat and even Paraquat for the control of weeds or the dessication of foliage pre- harvest adversely affecting soil microorganisms and leading to an imbalance of good-bad bacteria in the soils?

    Are rockmelons ever sprayed pre- harvest? Any scientists with an opinion?

What do you think?

We love hearing from you, but we have a few guidelines.